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Types of Disease

Posted by on Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 0:27
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What is this disease?

Anorexia is an emotional disorder that focuses on food, but it is actually an attempt to deal with perfectionism and a desire to control things by strictly regulating food and weight. People with anorexia often feel that their self-esteem is tied to how thin they are. It is often coupled with a distorted self imagewhich may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about her or his body, food and eating. Persons with anorexia nervosa continue to feel hunger, but deny themselves all but very small quantities of food. The average caloric intake of a person with anorexia nervosa is 600-800 calories per day, but there are extreme cases of complete self-starvation. It is a serious mental illness with a high incidence of comorbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder.

Types of Disease
Types of Disease

Types of disease
There are two identifiable types of anorexia nervosa:
Restricting Type:
Throughout the present episode of anorexia nervosa, there has been no regular occurrence of binge eating or purging (self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas).
Binge Eating/Purging Type:
Throughout the present episode of anorexia nervosa, there has been a regular occurrence of binge eating or purging.

What is the cause?
People with anorexia have an extreme fear of gaining weight, which causes them to try to maintain a weight far less than normal. They will do almost anything to avoid gaining weight, including staving themselves or exercising too much. People with anorexia have a distorted body image — they think they are fat (even when they are extremely thin) and won’t maintain a proper weight.
People with anorexia have an extreme fear of gaining weight, which causes them to try to maintain a weight far less than normal. They will do almost anything to avoid gaining weight, including staving themselves or exercising too much. People with anorexia have a distorted body image — they think they are fat (even when they are extremely thin) and won’t maintain a proper weight.
What are signs and symptoms?
Weight loss of at least 15 per cent below the normal ideal body weight for a person of the same sex, age and height.
Stopping of periods or delayed development in puberty.
Self-induced weight loss. Methods can include fasting, low food intake, excessive exercise, diuretic medicines (medicines that make you urinate more) laxatives, diet pills or vomiting. Sometimes people make themselves sick to lose weight. Others take excessive exercise.
Sufferers have a constant fear of gaining weight, as well as a feeling of being fat, even when their weight is much less than that of other people of the same height.
Sufferers may feel bloated, even after a small meal.
They may lose interest in socialising with friends.
Other side-effects include tiredness, feeling cold, constipation and stomachache.
Some patients also develop additional disorders, such as bulimia.
Having an unusual interest in food, calories, nutrition
Inability to realistically assess one’s own body weight
Striving for perfection
Depression, anxiety, or irritability
Infrequent or irregular menstrual periods in females
Laxative, diuretic, or diet pill use
Frequent illness
Wearing loose clothing to hide weight loss
Feeling worthless or hopeless
Social withdrawal
Physical symptoms that develop over time, including: low tolerance of cold weather, brittle hair and nails, dry or yellowing skin, anemia, constipation, swollen joints and a new growth of thin hair over the body
Diagnostic criteria
A. Body weight is less than is considered normal for height and age. Weight is consistently less than 85% of that expected, which can be due to either weight loss, or failure to gain weight during growth.
B. Despite being underweight, there is an intense fear of putting on weight and becoming fat.
C. Refusal to accept low body weight as a problem, excessive influence of body weight and shape on self-worth, or a distorted body image perception.
D. Amenorrhea (abnormal absence of a minimum of three successive menstrual cycles).

Treatment
Psychological treatment
It includes cognitive analytic therapy (CAT),cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), focal psychodynamic therapy and family interventions focused explicitly on eating disorders.

Medication
Certain antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might be used to help control anxiety and depression associated with an eating disorder.
Nutrition counseling
This strategy is designed to teach a healthy approach to food and weight, to help restore normal eating patterns, and to teach the importance of nutrition and a balanced diet.
Group and/or family therapy
Family support is very important to treatment success. It is important that family members understand the eating disorder and recognize its signs and symptoms. People with eating disorders might benefit from group therapy, where they can find support, and openly discuss their feelings and concerns with others who share common experiences and problems.
Hospitalization
Hospitalization might be needed to treat severe weight loss that has resulted in malnutrition and other serious mental or physical health complications, such as heart disorders, serious depression and risk of suicide. Intravenous (in the vein) fluids, nasogastric tube feedings or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) might be needed in cases of severe malnutrition. TPN is used for patients who cannot or should not get their nutrition through eating.
Prevention

New research findings are showing that some of the “traits” in individuals who develop anorexia nervosa are actual “risk factors” that might be treated early on. For example, anxiety, low self esteem, body dissatisfaction, and dieting may be identified and interventions instituted before an eating disorder develops. Advocacy groups have also been effective in reducing dangerous media stories, such as teen magazine articles on “being thin” and pro-anorexia (pro-ana) websites that may glamorize such risk factors as dieting.

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