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Brain Surgery

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Posted by on Wednesday, February 2, 2011, 0:32
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Brain Surgery
Operating on the brain to treat various ailments of the brain is known as brain surgery. It is also known by the terms Craniotomy and Neurosurgery. It is one of the most sophisticated and advanced of medical procedures and requires several years of intensive training. In order to qualify as a brain surgeon, you need to have an excellent medical school record, must have done several years of medical residency and sub-specialization fellowship and have published significant scientific papers on clinical research. It is a demanding job with very long work hours.

Brain Surgery
Brain Surgery

TBI or Traumatic Brain Injury is a complex injury resulting in very extensive range of disabilities and symptoms having devastating impact on a person and on the family of that person. This article will be helpful in educating survivors and caregivers of patient’s miseries from TBI so we aim at easing the switching from depression and distress at the time of the injury to problem solving and coping.
Traumatic Brain Injury is also known as acquired brain injury, or simply put – head injury which occurs when an abrupt trauma occurs in the brain which is injurious to its parts. Damage occurs when an object unexpectedly pierces through the skull and enters into the brain tissue or when the head smack an object fiercely.

Symptoms of TBI can fluctuate from mild to temperate and even severe, depending on the level of damage done to the brain. A person who suffers with milder symptoms may experience unconsciousness for a few seconds or minutes or may remain unconscious for a period of time. Other usual symptoms of TBI include stern headaches, lightheadedness, blurred vision, confusion, dizziness, tired eyes, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, lethargy, fatigue, mood swings, behavioral pattern changes, change in sleeping patterns and even problem with attentiveness, memory, thinking and attention.

A person suffering from moderate to severe symptoms will show all of the above symptoms, but in addition to all these symptoms he will also having complain of severe headache that appears to get worse or just does not go away. In addition to above symptoms, nausea and vomiting, seizures or convulsions, powerlessness to get up from sleep, dilation of the pupils, weakness, deadness in the extremities, inaudible speech, increased confusion, loss of synchronization, anxiety or impatience.

What are the Treatment Options?

people showing symptoms of moderate to severe TBI should seek immediate health check up. Little treatment can be done to overturn the drastic effects of preliminary brain damage that is caused by the trauma so doctors generally try to soothe the patient and do their best to prevent any further injuries or damages.

Principal concerns comprises of guaranteeing  that there should be adequate supply of oxygen running to the brain and the rest of the body at all times, controlling blood pressure and maintaining adequate blood flow.

Imaging tests help to conclude the diagnosis and analysis of the patient. Patients suffering from mild to moderate conditions may get neck and skull X-rays to check for spinal instability or for any bone fractures. For moderate to severe injuries, the imaging test detained is a computed tomography (CT Scan). Patients with such moderate or severe injures will be subjected to psychoanalysis that would involve in person modified treatment courses and programs in fields like occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy, psychology, physiatry, and social support.

Prognosis
majority sufferers of severe TBI will need urgent surgery in order to repair or remove the busted blood vessels or hematomas or the bruised brain tissues or contusions. Disabilities at end result from a Traumatic Brain Injury totally depend on the severity of the injury, the general health of the patient, the age of the person, and the position of the injury.

Some of these disabilities are troubles with sensory processing (sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste), cognition (memory, reasoning and thinking), mental health or behavior (depression, aggression, anxiety, social inappropriateness, and personality changes), and communication (understanding and expressing).

More severe injuries can result in indifferent or unresponsive manner, a kind of stupor or coma although the individual can be  aroused at once with the help of a strong incentive like sharp pain. The patient will appear to be in an exhausted condition and will appear to be completely unresponsive, unconscious, unarguable and unaware. So patient is in vegetative state, in which he is completely ignorant and unconscious of his environs, but will keep on having short periods of awareness, a regular sleep and wake cycle and will constantly be in a vegetative state for maybe more than a month. This state of patient is known as the persistent vegetative state (PVS).

What Research is Being Carried out?
The NINDS or the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke are continuously carrying out experiments and research for Traumatic Brain Injuries at its laboratories at the NIH or National Institutes of Health. It also supports research for TBI by donating funds to other major and important medical institutions all over the country.

The research carried out is the studies executed in clinical settings and laboratories. Research is a way by which TBI and the underlying biological mechanisms that result from damage made to the brain can be understood.  By these researches scientists develop new and interesting interventions and strategies to limit the primary as well as secondary damage that may arise within a few days of the injury. It also facilitates to formulate new therapies to aid treat head injuries and to improve long-term improvement of body functions.

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